The Geography of Pakistan

[Note: This information derives primarily from the 1995 edition of the CIA World Factbook.]

Basic facts

[Country map of Pakistan]

Land boundaries

Maritime claims

International disputes


mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north


flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Natural resources

land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use


current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Postcolonial Web India OV Pakistan OV

Last modified 18 May 2001