The Economy of Nigeria

[Source of Information: CIA World Factbook ]


The oil-rich Nigerian economy continues to be hobbled by political instability and poor macroeconomic management. Nigeria's unpopular military rulers show no sign of wanting to restore democratic civilian rule in the near future and appear divided on how to redress fundamental economic imbalances that cause troublesome inflation and the steady depreciation of the naira. The government's domestic and international arrears continue to limit economic growth -- even in the oil sector - and prevent an agreement with the IMF and bilateral creditors on debt relief. The inefficient (largely subsistence) agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food.

National product


Inflation rate (consumer prices): 53% (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1992 est.)


Exports: $11.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992)

Imports: $8.3 billion (c.i.f., 1992) commodities: machinery and equipment, manufactured goods, food and animals partners: EC 64%, US 10%, Japan 7%

External debt: $29.5 billion (1992)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.7% (1991); accounts for 43% of GDP, including petroleum



Industries: crude oil and mining -- coal, tin, columbite; primary processing industries - palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins; manufacturing industries - textiles, cement, building materials, food products, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics, steel

Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GDP and half of labor force; cash crops -- cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food crops -- corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forestry resources extensively exploited; see also Foods and Foodstuff in Nigeria

Illicit drugs: passenger and cargo air hub for West Africa; facilitates movement of heroin en route from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and North America; increasingly a transit route for cocaine from South America intended for West European, East Asian, and North American markets

Economic aid: recipient: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $705 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.2 billion

Currency: 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1 - 21.996 (January 1995), 21.996 (1994), 22.065 (1993), 17.298 (1992), 9.909 (1991), 8.038 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year

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